At some point a tech company decides it needs a user experience team to champion the voice of the customer. The smart ones start this journey early as it is more challenging to institutionalize user experience in companies with a few hundred employees. The following 7Ps will help you institutionalize UX in your company:
Posters : Use posters to communicate the critical components of the UX message - UX principles, customer segments, etc. For example, Walmart.com had posters of its customer segments on the walls around the office to always remind its employees who they were designing for.
Process: Define the UX Engagement process. Usability.gov has a well defined design process. This may vary based on how departments are structured in your company, resources available and team dynamics but a process is a start to including all the critical elements of the user experience.
Procedure: Create standard UX templates to define the procedure to conduct a specific aspect of the UX. Usability.gov has many templates. For example, a moderator guide or guidelines to conduct and write a heuristic report will establish a set of standards and improve the consistency and quality of work.
Protocol: Create a UX repository on the company intranet to educate everyone in your company about the UX team and their work, how to engage with them, what to expect, timelines, schedules, etc.
Publish: Get noticed in the greater UX community by publishing research and presenting at conferences. This brings visibility and credibility to the UX group.
Proof of productivity: User Experience improves the customer's experience in many ways. For example, it could reduce time, reduce help desk calls, increase enjoyment and trust, improve safety, etc. It is critical to measure this improvement in productivity to translate the value of the UX activity and to communicate it to employees and management.
Partner: This is the most important step in institutionalizing UX in a company. Unless you have a partner in upper management to rally around the UX cause this would be a very difficult struggle. It is critical to get support to ensure the message does not get lost and more importantly give UX the attention it deserves. After all, some of the top tech companies have made it their mantra. Google says "Focus on the user and all else follows" while Apple uses UX to drive its innovation engine.
Attention and interest on the web are critical metrics and are an essential component that should guide any online strategy. LinkedIn has done an excellent job in this area of indicating interest quantitatively. Let us look at a few examples:
Indicating interest in you/your profile by showing how many looked at your profile. Indicating interest in a job by showing how many people clicked on the Apply button. Indicating interest in your connections by showing how many changed jobs in a year.
There are some other examples in the online retail industry. For example, Rue La La indicates interest in their products (clothing, accessories, home goods, etc.) by letting us know how many Ralph Lauren sweaters are left to buy thus indicating how quickly a product is getting sold. We also measure interest (though not shown quantitatively) by grouping stuff under most popular, most commented and most shared on various blogs and news sites.
The theme of the third largest social network, Pinterest (Facebook and Twitter are the top two) is centered around interest. Interest is indicated quantitatively through likes, repins and comments. We need to have a measure of interest by consolidating our online behavior (sharing, commenting, viewing, etc.). Let me know if you have any ideas on how to measure interest.
On March 1st I went for a talk on Target Product Profiles at UCSF. Patrick Scannon, Xoma's Founder and CSO spoke on how drug discoveries can be made into commercial realities with the help of a Target Product Profile (TPP). A TPP is the first step towards creating a drug label. A TPP is defined as a communication tool to help people in academics (discoverers of drugs in labs) to communicate the value of a drug to investors (people with $ but not convinced). This takes the drug from discovery through development to approval/market entry. It also helps keep various departments/functions such as regulatory, manufacturing, sales, marketing, etc. on the same page.
As drug discovery takes many years to commercialize (about 12 yrs) it is important to have clear goals (TPP) and to start with the end (FDA approval) in mind and work backwards. The TPP defines who the drug is for, what disease it cures, how large is the market, how is it administered and more details as seen in the image. Defining the unknowns upfront helps communicate the goals better to the FDA (governing body that ultimately approves if a drug can be commercialized). The TPP helps in thinking of launch strategies too. For example, some drug companies first launch in an orphan market (diseases affecting fewer than 200,000 people) and then larger markets as its faster to get approval in orphan markets and grants are available to support you in this process. Some companies also choose to launch in international markets before local markets as approval is faster for certain diseases.
Often changes in the IP landscape or manufacturing processes or technical difficulties result in changes to the TPP and CEOs are forced to make a difficult decision to move ahead with the changes or drop the product. If the CEO agrees to go ahead she/he needs to update the TPP and keep all in the loop. The TPP can be used to increase the value of the company by finding ways to create additional IP, communicating improved benefits and decreased adverse events. CEOs can also use the TPP to forecast different scenarios of the drug. For example, a target scenario, a minimal scenario and an optimistic scenario where the CEO predicts the characteristic of the drug and thus his strategies under these three scenarios.
A key concept in marketing is identifying value of a company (value proposition) and communicating (positioning) it to target customers. To define these concepts we answer the 4 key questions below for IKEA.
What does IKEA do well? IKEA’s cost leadership and unique Swedish designs provide its target customers (young buyers) excellent value.
What are the trends in the industry? Americans love to keep furniture. Ikea tried to change these attitudes with an advertisement (lamp has no feelings). The trend is to update furniture based on lifestyle changes (single, married, student, starting a new family, etc). Providing interior design expertise is a critical part of this industry. Manufacturers and distributors are joining forces. Flexible furniture (example: bed plus sofa in one) and furniture that serves dual purposes add value (example: bed has storage too). Distinctions between rooms disappearing – kitchen and living room furniture (example: chairs) is interchangeable. Personalization of furniture is on the rise (color, upholstery, wood stains, etc) and so is experimentation with new materials (jute, etc).
What is the competition doing? The competition is using four (or a combination of these 4) strategies: cost leadership, design differentiation, catering to certain market segments (international, demographic segments-young and old, psychographic segments-improves self image, retail, office, etc) and enhancing the shopping experience (design consultants, in house restaurants, etc). Image on right shows cost leadership and design differentiation for a few competitors.
What does the customer want? Customers want great designs in unique styles to match their lifestyle for low prices. They would like an expert to do the interiors of their home for free. They don’t want to burden themselves with transporting furniture from store to home or having to assemble it. People are willing to spend more on furniture items such as a bed (indicated by the wide range in prices) or items that serve dual purposes (futon serves as a sofa plus a bed). It should be easy to maintain (odors, scratches, etc).
What is Ikea’s positioning strategy relative to its competitors?
Cost Leadership (30-50% lower than competitors): This global furniture retailer based in Sweden targets young furniture buyers who want style at low cost. Buyers trade off service for cost. Ikea designs its own low-cost modular ready-to-assemble furniture (big part of their cost leadership). Customers do their own pickup and delivery or get it delivered for a fee. Employees are trained to save electricity and managers always travel coach and take buses instead of taxis. Cost is so important that first a price point is established, and then the manufacturer, materials and design are chosen. Expensive wood is used only on top visible layers of the furniture. Suppliers are chosen from a pool of 1800 to maintain cost leadership.
Shopping Experience: Ikea owns the furniture buying experience. It displays every product it sells in room-like settings so customers don’t need a decorator to help them imagine how to put the pieces together. Ikea's in house Swedish restaurant is as popular as its furniture and provides respite to customers who walk through 25,000 sq m (average space of Ikea store). Customers move along a predetermined path through a maze of rooms. Ikea offers services aligned to its customers who are young but not wealthy, likely to have children but no nanny and because they work for a living and need to shop at odd hours they are open late and on weekends. They also offer furniture delivery services for a fee.
Swedish Designs (functional and simple): Ikea creates functional cookie-cutter Swedish designs (designs are part of their ‘matrix’). That one table only comes in 4 Scandinavian styles at 3 price points. Design is usually the last step (after choosing, the price point and manufacturer) in the process. Other than its staff of 10 designers it also depends on freelancers highlighting that design was to focus on simple yet functional styles.
Location data such as using a zip code to find out how much revenue a grocery store can make is critical in your decision to decide if you want to open the store at that location. This is just one example of the powerful potential of micromarketing. Read an earlier post to get the details. Let's look at some more examples of how micromarketing can be used in defining marketing campaigns and identifying sales trends.
Identifying Marketing Campaigns based on Market Potential: Market potential is the estimated maximum sales revenue of a product during a certain time period. MapInfo Professional visually depicts the market potential of households who spend more than $150 per week on groceries for each block group (group of adjacent zip codes) in Orange County. The software also gives details on which customer segment will most likely contribute to the sales at the grocery store. For details on customer segments based on PRIZM groups read the earlier post. We see that White-Collar Suburbia have the highest market potential (count* penetration) of 21.1% and hence will be the target of a marketing campaign. This group is well described and is very specific so a direct mail ad campaign is suitable. As this group is family centric and enjoys a healthy and busy (both parents work) lifestyle we can tailor the campaigns to emphasize healthy foods and easy to make dishes that brings the family together. We can also identify the market potential by block group so say if Block X has high market potential we will place a billboard in that area to target customers. We could also use coupons to entice the White-Collar Suburbia that live outside the trade area (area where customers that visit the store reside - usually a 5 minute radius for a grocery store) of the grocery store to visit the store.
Using Point of Sale Data (data collected at cash registers) to Identify Sales Trends: AC Nielsen collects a lot of data from grocery stores and can show sales trends based on customer locations (zip codes). As seen in the image below we see market share and sales over a year for 2 brands of cranberry drink - Ocean Spray and Coca Cola.
For Ocean Spray we see that within a retailer’s trade area the retailer’s total market share for Ocean Spray’s SS Cranberry Drink is 38.6%, a decrease of 4.3 points from last year. This means that the retailer sells 38.6% of this brand SS Cranberry drinks in this trade area. When we look at the Total Sales we see that the retailer’s sales is down 14% while the remaining market increased by 2.9%. This means its sales decreased by 14% or people could be going to another retailer with a better marketing campaign (possibly a discount) for this drink in the trade area. The total sales were $700,000+ which is significant. Thus this drink could be a cash cow (based on BCG classification) for the retailer with the right marketing campaign. Plus, the sales for Ocean Spray or the remaining market increased by 2.9% though the overall trend for sales of ocean spray was slightly down by 3.6%.
For Coca Cola within a retailer’s trade area the retailer’s total market share for Coca Cola’s SS Cranberry drink is 23.6%, a decrease of 14.9 points from last year. This means that the retailer sells 23.6% of this brand drink in this trade area. When we look at the Total Sales we see that the retailer’s sales is down 62.3% while the remaining market decreased by 23.5%. Thus this drink is a dog for the retailer and should be dropped as its market share is less than 35% and its total sales % change is less than 5%. Plus, overall sales were $1450 which is nearly insignificant (less than 1k is insignificant).